Population mapping of gibbons in Kalimantan, Indonesia: correlates of gibbon density and vegetation across the species’ range



The first comprehensive survey of gibbons (Hylobates spp.) across Indonesian Borneo was carried out over 3 years to (1) determine whether densities of gibbon species are correlated with vegetation characteristics, and if so, whether the same characteristics are correlated with density across all forest types; and (2) determine population densities in the survey areas and identify threats to the areas. To achieve this, a total of 8 forest blocks were surveyed, involving 53 independent survey locations and repeat surveys in 3 forest blocks. Our data show that gibbons are ubiquitous where there is forest; however, the quality of forest affects population density, forest block size affects longevity of populations, and populations are susceptible to the ‘compression effect’, i.e. populations occupy smaller fragments at unsustainably high densities. We show the effects of forest disturbance (logging, fire, fragmentation) on gibbon distribution and density and highlight issues for long-term conservation. We discuss the use of minimum cross-sectional area, habitat variables and presence of top foods to determine population density and to identify a threshold below which gibbons cannot persist. We discuss the conservation issues facing all Bornean gibbons, including natural hybrids (H. muelleri × H. albibarbis). The answers to these research questions will help mitigate threats to gibbons and their habitat, as well as identify key habitat for gibbon populations within and outside the protected area network.

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The butterflies of Borneo’s Upper Barito Watershed: A preliminary checklist and remarks on the importance if community managed forests in sustaining diversity



The hill and montane rainforests of central Borneo harbour high levels of biodiversity, including many threatened and endemic species. However, this region has been explored far more by extractive industry than scientists. To establish a baseline for biodiversity in the Murung Raya region of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, butterflies were surveyed during the dry season of 2011. Species lists presented here are the first of their kind for the upper reaches of the Murung River. Further study is necessary from additional seasons and localities to form a comprehensive understanding of the region’s butterfly fauna. Nevertheless, amidst ongoing landscape-wide change to this region, our preliminary results indicate the value of community-managed forests as refugia for sustaining biodiversity.



Hutan hujan tropis di daerah perbukitan dan pegunungan Kalimantan Tengah merupakan tempat yang didiami oleh keanekeragaman haya dengan ngkat yang sangat nggi, diantaranya bahkan merupakan spesies endemik dan terancam punah. Akan tetapi daerah ini lebih banyak dieksplorasi oleh industri ekstrak f dibandingkan oleh ilmuwan. Untuk membangun suatu sistem pangkalan data keanekaragaman haya di wilayah Murung Raya, Kalimantan tengah, Indonesia, dilakukanlah survei terhadap keanekaragaman kupu-kupu pada musim kemarau 2011. Da ar jenis yang ditampilkan dalam tulisan ini merupakan yang pertama untuk daerah sungai Murung. Peneli an lebih jauh perlu dilakukan pada musim-musim dan daerah lainnya untuk bisa memahami secara menyeluruh daerah sebaran kupu-kupu. Tidak hanya itu, sehubungan dengan perubahan lansekap secara besar-besaran pada daerah ini, hasil sementara peneli an ini mengindikasikan pen ngnya hutan-hutan yang dikelola masyarakat lokal sebagai refugium untuk kelestarian keanekaragaman hayati.


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Report of the small terrestria mammals of the Uut Murun Region, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia



The known distribution of small mammals in Borneo largely reflects surveying effort, which is concentrated in the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak as well as accessible low land Kalimantan. Here we present the findings of small mammal trapping surveys in two sites in a remote dipterocarp forest ecosystems in Murung Raya Regency, Central Kalimantan. To our knowledge, this is the first published account small mammal guild surveys in this region. Nine species of small mammals were found to be present over two study sites. The survey expands the con rmed distribution of the Grey Tree Rat (Lenothrix canus), constituting the second published record of the species in Central Kalimantan, and the first record of the species in northern Central Kalimantan. Also of note is the confirmed presence of the Chestnut-Bellied Spiny Rat (Maxomys ochraceiventer), a Data Deficient species thought to have a wide range yet captures are rare.


Pengetahuan tentang distribusi mamalia kecil di Kalimantan sebagian besar menunjukkan bahwa kegiatan peneli an yang telah dilakukan lebih terpusat pada bagian daerah Sabah dan Sarawak serta dataran rendah Kalimantan yang bisa dijangkau. Pada tulisan ini kami menyampaikan hasil peneli an mamalia kecil dengan menggunakan perangkap pada dua lokasi dalam ekosistem hutan dipterocarpace yang terpencil di Kabupaten Murung Raya, Kalimantan Tengah. Tujuan kegiatan ini adalah untuk mendokumentasikan guild mamalia kecil di daerah ini. Sembilan spesies mamalia kecil dijumpai pada kedua lokasi peneli an. Peneli an ini mengkon rmasi sebaran Tikus-pohon kelabu (Lenothrix canus), yang merupakan publikasi ke dua dari Kalimantan Tengah, dan catatan pertama keberadaan spesies ini pada bagian utara Kalimantan Tengah. Juga menambahkan catatan keberadaan Tikus-duri perut-kastanye (Maxomys ochraceiventer), yang merupakan spesies dengan kategori kurang data (Data De cient) yang sebelumnya dikatakan tersebar luas namun hanya didapatkan dalam jumlah yang sedikit.


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Report on the large mammals of the Uut Murung Region, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

Cheyne et al. 2015


Using camera traps and standard transect surveys, we surveyed the forests of the upper Murung River region for presence of large mammals. A total of 10 camera traps were placed singly covering 2km2 and 10km of trails were walked. Our results confirm that this region supports a high diversity of fauna: a total of 20 large mammals including 9 primates and 2 felids were recorded in the area. These numbers may actually underestimate the true diversity of this region, due to our limited survey period, resources and size of study area. Of the 21 species recorded, 2 are classified as endangered and 10 are classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN, including the Bornean southern gibbon and Müllers gibbon (Hylobates albibarbis and H. muelleri), Sunda clouded leopard (Neofelis diardii) and proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus). Thus, considering the large size of intact forest and the fact that the species list presented in this report may be incomplete, the forests of the upper Murung River region are likely to be an important area for biodiversity conservation.


Dengan menggunakan perangkap kamera dan survei transek standar kami mengkaji keberadaan mamalia besar di hutan bagian hulu sungai Murung. Sebanyak 10 perangkap kamera ditempatkan terpisah dalam kisaran 2 km2 dan 10 km jalur transek. Hasil peneli an menunjukkan bahwa daerah ini memiliki keanekaragaman fauna yang nggi; secara keseluruhan 20 jenis mamalia besar, termasuk sembilan jenis primata dan dua jenis Kucing dicatat pada daerah ini. Jumlah ini mungkin merupakan taksiran rendah terhadap keanekaragaman haya yang sebenarnya di daerah ini, mengingat terbatasnya waktu peneli an, sumber daya dan luasan area peneli an. Dua dari 20 spesies yang dijumpai dikategorikan sebagai gen ng (endangered), dan sepuluh dikategorikan sebagai rentan (vulnerable) oleh IUCN, termasuk Owa kalaweit dan Owa kalimantan (Hylobates albibarbis dan H. Muelleri), macan dahan (Neofelis diardii) dan bekantan (Nasalis larvatus). Mengingat luasnya wilayah tutupan hutan dan belum lengkapnya da ar spesies yang disajikan dalam tulisan ini, hutan bagian hulu Sungai Murung seper nya akan sangat pen ng bagi konservasi keanekaragaman haya .

Download PDF here Cheyne et al 2015

How nature is used and valued by villagers in two villages in Uut Murung

Hoeing 2015b


Local communities in the upstream part of Uut Murung live in a remote forest environment. Due to its richness of natural resources there has been much interest in the region by various actors, including the government, extractive industry and conservationists. This study aimed at understanding local peoples dependencies on natural resources and the different kind of use values. Therefore, we conducted a two month expedition to two villages in Uut Murung where we conducted questionnaires, ranking methods and semi structured interviews. In general, locals were found to engage in a variety of activities to sustain livelihoods, such as fishing, hunting, gardening and searching for eaglewood. Respondents from both villages valued nature as most important for food and water supply, but also as a place to live, a stock for medicines and a stock for commodities. Animal species were found to serve different purposes for food, commodities, medicine to other purposes, such as traditional rituals. We argue that community members at our study sight might behave opportunistically despite being flexible. Our findings support the idea that a single resource might have more than one purpose; each community differers from each other, but also even within the community itself, it is not homogeneous. Our findings stress the importance that locals dependencies on natural resources and social structures behind resource use, need to be understood for the long term success of any conservation or development initiative.


Masyarakat lokal di bagian hulu Uut Murung hidup dalam lingkungan hutan yang terpencil, dengan sumber daya alam yang sangat kaya, sehingga banyak pihak yang tertarik, baik dari pemerintahan, industri ekstrak f dan pelaku konservasi. Peneli an ini bertujuan untuk memahami ketergantungan masyarakat lokal terhadap sumber daya alam dan perbedaan nilai pemanfaatan. Peneli an ini dilakukan dengan melaksanakan ekspedisi selama dua bulan ke dua desa di Uut Murung dengan menggunakan kuisioner, metode perangkingan dan pertanyaan semi terstruktur. Secara umum masyarakat lokal melakukan berbagai ak vitas untuk mempertahankan hidupnya, seper memancing, berburu, berkebun dan mencari kayu gaharu. Nilai terpen ng sumber daya alam menurut responden dari dua desa tersebut adalah sebagai sumber makanan dan air, namun sumber daya juga pen ng sebagai tempat untuk hidup, cadangan untuk obat-obatan dan cadangan untuk kebutuhan komoditas lainnya. Berbagai spesies satwaliar yang dijumpai digunakan sebagai bahan makanan, komoditas, obat-obatan dan bentuk pemanfaatan lainnya, seper untuk kebutuhan ritual tradisional. Kami berpendapat bahwa anggota masyarakat pada lokasi peneli an mungkin mempunyai pemahaman yang eksibel dan untung-untungan. Temuan kami juga mendukung pendapat yang menyatakan bahwa sumber daya bisa saja memiliki lebih dari satu kegunaan, dan bukan itu saja, se ap komunitas berbeda dari komunitas lainnya, begitu juga, di dalam komunitas itu sendiri pemahamannya juga daklah sama. Temuan kami menekankan pen ngnya pemahaman terhadap ketergantungan masyarakat lokal terhadap sumber daya, serta struktur sosial yang berperan di belakang pemanfaatan sumber daya, untuk kesuksesan inisia f konservasi dan pembangunan jangka panjang.

Download PDF Version Here Hoeing et al. 2015(b)

How Orang-utans choose where to sleep: comparison of nest-site variables

cheyne immage


Primates spend a signicant proportion of their lives at sleeping sites, and the selection of a secure and stable nest tree can be crucial for the individual’s survival and fitness. This study examined nesting site preferences of Southern Bornean Orangutans Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii (Tiedemann) in a degraded peat-swamp forest in the Sabangau catchment, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Orangutan nests were identified during transect walks. Orangutans most frequently nested in trees in the families Anacardiaceae and Elaeocarpaceae. Orangutans preferentially chose trees with stilt roots or buttresses. We suggest that orangutan nest site selection is driven by comfort and stability rather than predator avoidance. The findings underline the importance of conserving habitat not only for food species, but also for nest-site species.


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Cheyne et al. 2013