Forest foods and healthy diets: quantifying the contributions

rowland2017

Abstract

Forested landscapes provide a source of micronutrient rich food for millions of people around the world. A growing evidence base suggests these foods may be of great importance to the dietary quality of people living in close proximity to forests – especially in communities with poor access to markets. Despite widespread evidence of the consumption of forest foods around the world, to date, few studies have attempted to quantify the nutritional contributions these foods make. In this study we tested the hypothesis that the consumption of forest foods can make important contributions to dietary quality. We investigated the dietary contributions of wild forest foods in smallholder dominated forested landscapes from 37 sites in 24 tropical countries, using data from the Poverty and Environment Network (PEN). We compared quantities of forest foods consumed by households with dietary recommendations and national average consumption patterns. In addition, we compared the relative importance of forests and smallholder agriculture in supplying fruits, vegetables, meat and fish for household consumption. More than half of the households in our sample collected forest foods for their own consumption, though consumption patterns were skewed towards low-quantity users. For high-quantity consuming households, however, forest foods made a substantial contributions to their diets. The top quartile of forest food users in each site obtained 14.8% of the recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables, and 106% of the reference quantity of meat and fish from forests. In 13 sites, the proportion of meat and fish coming from forests was greater than from domestic livestock and aquaculture, while in 11 sites, households procured a greater proportion of fruits and vegetables from forests than from agriculture. Given high levels of heterogeneity in forest food consumption, we identify four forest food use site typologies to characterize the different use patterns: ‘forest food dependent’, ‘limited forest food use’, ‘forest food supplementation’ and ‘specialist forest food consumer’ sites. Our results suggest that while forest foods do not universally contribute significantly to diets, in some sites where large quantities of forest foods are consumed, their contribution towards dietary adequacy is substantial.

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Forests, Trees and Micronutrient-Rich Food Consumption in Indonesia

ickowitz

Abstract

Micronutrient deficiency remains a serious problem in Indonesia with approximately 100 million people, or 40% of the population, suffering from one or more micronutrient deficiencies. In rural areas with poor market access, forests and trees may provide an essential source of nutritious food. This is especially important to understand at a time when forests and other tree-based systems in Indonesia are being lost at unprecedented rates. We use food consumption data from the 2003 Indonesia Demographic Health Survey for children between the ages of one and five years and data on vegetation cover from the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry to examine whether there is a relationship between different tree-dominated land classes and consumption of micronutrient-rich foods across the archipelago. We run our models on the aggregate sample which includes over 3000 observations from 25 provinces across Indonesia as well as on sub-samples from different provinces chosen to represent the different land classes. The results show that different tree-dominated land classes were associated with the dietary quality of people living within them in the provinces where they were dominant. Areas of swidden/agroforestry, natural forest, timber and agricultural tree crop plantations were all associated with more frequent consumption of food groups rich in micronutrients in the areas where these were important land classes. The swidden/agroforestry land class was the landscape associated with more frequent consumption of the largest number of micronutrient rich food groups. Further research needs to be done to establish what the mechanisms are that underlie these associations. Swidden cultivation in is often viewed as a backward practice that is an impediment to food security in Indonesia and destructive of the environment. If further research corroborates that swidden farming actually results in better nutrition than the practices that replace it, Indonesian policy makers may need to reconsider their views on this land use.

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Population mapping of gibbons in Kalimantan, Indonesia: correlates of gibbon density and vegetation across the species’ range

CHEYNEETAL

Abstract

The first comprehensive survey of gibbons (Hylobates spp.) across Indonesian Borneo was carried out over 3 years to (1) determine whether densities of gibbon species are correlated with vegetation characteristics, and if so, whether the same characteristics are correlated with density across all forest types; and (2) determine population densities in the survey areas and identify threats to the areas. To achieve this, a total of 8 forest blocks were surveyed, involving 53 independent survey locations and repeat surveys in 3 forest blocks. Our data show that gibbons are ubiquitous where there is forest; however, the quality of forest affects population density, forest block size affects longevity of populations, and populations are susceptible to the ‘compression effect’, i.e. populations occupy smaller fragments at unsustainably high densities. We show the effects of forest disturbance (logging, fire, fragmentation) on gibbon distribution and density and highlight issues for long-term conservation. We discuss the use of minimum cross-sectional area, habitat variables and presence of top foods to determine population density and to identify a threshold below which gibbons cannot persist. We discuss the conservation issues facing all Bornean gibbons, including natural hybrids (H. muelleri × H. albibarbis). The answers to these research questions will help mitigate threats to gibbons and their habitat, as well as identify key habitat for gibbon populations within and outside the protected area network.

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Direct contributions of dry forests to nutrition: a review

RowlanddryforestsAbstract

Globally, micronutrient deficiencies are more prevalent than calorie and protein deficiencies. In order to address global micronutrient deficiencies, increasing attention is being paid to the nutritional quality of people’s diets. While conventional agriculture is key for ensuring adequate calories, dietary quality depends on the consumption of a diverse range of micronutrient-rich foods. Many wild foods are rich in micronutrients, particularly fruits, vegetables, and animal source food. As a result there has been increasing interest in the value of wild foods to meeting nutritional requirements.

We review literature on the consumption of wild foods in dry forest areas to assess the current state of knowledge as to how dry forests may contribute to nutrition. We focus on papers that quantify consumption of wild forest foods. Although there is a great deal of literature that lends weight to the notion that dry forests are important for food security and nutrition, we find surprisingly little evidence of direct contributions to diets. Of 2514 articles identified by our search, only four quantify the consumption of wild foods from dry forests, and only one of these puts this consumption in the context of the entire diet. There is a need for research on the nutritional importance of dry forest foods which combines methodologies from nutrition science with an understanding and appreciation of the ecological, social, cultural and economic context.

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Drivers and effects of agrarian change in Kapuas Hulu Regency, West Kalimantan, Indonesia

Leonald and Rowland

Summary

This chapter examines the potential of the Kapuas Hulu Regency in West Kalimantan as a study site to examine the current drivers of land-use change in Indonesia and the effects of contemporary land-use change on livelihoods and food security. The chapter summarizes preliminary research undertaken in Indonesia as part of the Agrarian Change Project, a multi-country comparative research project conducted by CIFOR. Within the Indonesian component of the project, we focus on the expansion and intensification of oil palm plantations along an agricultural intensification gradient ranging from primary rainforest to monoculture palm oil plantations. We examine the effects of this agrarian change upon local livelihood strategies, economies and food security within nearby communities.

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The butterflies of Borneo’s Upper Barito Watershed: A preliminary checklist and remarks on the importance if community managed forests in sustaining diversity

Houlihanetal2015

Abstract

The hill and montane rainforests of central Borneo harbour high levels of biodiversity, including many threatened and endemic species. However, this region has been explored far more by extractive industry than scientists. To establish a baseline for biodiversity in the Murung Raya region of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, butterflies were surveyed during the dry season of 2011. Species lists presented here are the first of their kind for the upper reaches of the Murung River. Further study is necessary from additional seasons and localities to form a comprehensive understanding of the region’s butterfly fauna. Nevertheless, amidst ongoing landscape-wide change to this region, our preliminary results indicate the value of community-managed forests as refugia for sustaining biodiversity.

 

Abstrak

Hutan hujan tropis di daerah perbukitan dan pegunungan Kalimantan Tengah merupakan tempat yang didiami oleh keanekeragaman haya dengan ngkat yang sangat nggi, diantaranya bahkan merupakan spesies endemik dan terancam punah. Akan tetapi daerah ini lebih banyak dieksplorasi oleh industri ekstrak f dibandingkan oleh ilmuwan. Untuk membangun suatu sistem pangkalan data keanekaragaman haya di wilayah Murung Raya, Kalimantan tengah, Indonesia, dilakukanlah survei terhadap keanekaragaman kupu-kupu pada musim kemarau 2011. Da ar jenis yang ditampilkan dalam tulisan ini merupakan yang pertama untuk daerah sungai Murung. Peneli an lebih jauh perlu dilakukan pada musim-musim dan daerah lainnya untuk bisa memahami secara menyeluruh daerah sebaran kupu-kupu. Tidak hanya itu, sehubungan dengan perubahan lansekap secara besar-besaran pada daerah ini, hasil sementara peneli an ini mengindikasikan pen ngnya hutan-hutan yang dikelola masyarakat lokal sebagai refugium untuk kelestarian keanekaragaman hayati.

 

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Report of the small terrestria mammals of the Uut Murun Region, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

Zrustetal2015

Abstract

The known distribution of small mammals in Borneo largely reflects surveying effort, which is concentrated in the Malaysian states of Sabah and Sarawak as well as accessible low land Kalimantan. Here we present the findings of small mammal trapping surveys in two sites in a remote dipterocarp forest ecosystems in Murung Raya Regency, Central Kalimantan. To our knowledge, this is the first published account small mammal guild surveys in this region. Nine species of small mammals were found to be present over two study sites. The survey expands the con rmed distribution of the Grey Tree Rat (Lenothrix canus), constituting the second published record of the species in Central Kalimantan, and the first record of the species in northern Central Kalimantan. Also of note is the confirmed presence of the Chestnut-Bellied Spiny Rat (Maxomys ochraceiventer), a Data Deficient species thought to have a wide range yet captures are rare.

Abstrak

Pengetahuan tentang distribusi mamalia kecil di Kalimantan sebagian besar menunjukkan bahwa kegiatan peneli an yang telah dilakukan lebih terpusat pada bagian daerah Sabah dan Sarawak serta dataran rendah Kalimantan yang bisa dijangkau. Pada tulisan ini kami menyampaikan hasil peneli an mamalia kecil dengan menggunakan perangkap pada dua lokasi dalam ekosistem hutan dipterocarpace yang terpencil di Kabupaten Murung Raya, Kalimantan Tengah. Tujuan kegiatan ini adalah untuk mendokumentasikan guild mamalia kecil di daerah ini. Sembilan spesies mamalia kecil dijumpai pada kedua lokasi peneli an. Peneli an ini mengkon rmasi sebaran Tikus-pohon kelabu (Lenothrix canus), yang merupakan publikasi ke dua dari Kalimantan Tengah, dan catatan pertama keberadaan spesies ini pada bagian utara Kalimantan Tengah. Juga menambahkan catatan keberadaan Tikus-duri perut-kastanye (Maxomys ochraceiventer), yang merupakan spesies dengan kategori kurang data (Data De cient) yang sebelumnya dikatakan tersebar luas namun hanya didapatkan dalam jumlah yang sedikit.

 

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